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Table 1 Summary of system state responses

From: Improved model predictive load frequency control of interconnected power system with synchronized automatic generation control loops

Metrics States ACE1 (puMW) f1 (Hz) \( {\boldsymbol{P}}_{\mathbf{1}}^{\boldsymbol{tie}} \)(puMW)
Peak deviation Conventional −0.080 −0.152 −0.044
dis-MPC −0.041 −0.051 −0.018
Improvement (%) 48.75 66.45 59.09
Settling time (s) Conventional 7.65 7.58 6.98
dis-MPC 6.02 5.33 5.39
Improvement (%) 21.31 29.68 22.77
  States ACE2 (puMW) f2 (Hz) P2tie (puMW)
Peak deviation Conventional 0.019 −0.058 0.041
dis-MPC based 0.009 −0.039 0.017
Improvement (%) 52.63 32.75 58.53
Settling time (s) Conventional 8.46 7.86 7.43
dis-MPC 6.27 6.42 5.74
Improvement (%) 25.88 18.32 22.75
  States ACE3 (puMW) f3 (Hz) P3tie (puMW)
Peak deviation Conventional 0.023 −0.047 0.046
dis-MPC 0.012 −0.026 0.015
Improvement (%) 47.83 44.68 67.39
Settling time (s) Conventional 6.31 6.82 6.32
dis-MPC 5.06 5.44 5.16
Improvement (%) 19.89 20.23 18.35