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Table 2 Performance measures for 20 runs of ITAE values

From: Improved model predictive load frequency control of interconnected power system with synchronized automatic generation control loops

  QOWOA-based dis-MPC based Improvement (%)
Minimum 0.0759 0.0589 22.34
Maximum 0.0898 0.0728 18.95
Mean 0.08055 0.06118 24.05
Variance 1.64 × 10−5 1.26 × 10−5 23.21
STDev 0.003214 0.003247 20.83