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Table 3 Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in serum, whole blood samples collected from camels, sheep, and goat by ELISA, PCR, and LAMP

From: Rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in camels and small ruminants

Species Types No I- ELISA
 + ve %
PCR with primer of B1 gene
 + ve %
LAMP with primer @@(AF and RE)
 + ve %
Camels LF 41 15 (36.58) 6 (14.6) 6 (14.6)
Non-LF 40 14 (35) 8 (10) 8 (10)
M 27 5 (18.51) 4 (14.8) 4 (14.8)
Sheep LF 117 42 (35.89) 9 (7.6) 9 (7.6)
Non-LF 113 45 (39.8) 12 (10.6) 12 (10.6)
M 31 18 (58) 6 (19.35) 6 (19.35)
Goat LF 77 28 (36.6) 7 (9.09) 7 (9.09)
Non-LF 48 18 (37.5) 5 (10.4) 5 (10.4)
M 31 15 (48.3) 6 (19.35) 6 (19.35)
Total 525 200 (38.09) 63 (12) 63 (12)
Sensitivity LAMP = True positive / True positive + False negative *100 63/63 + 0 * 100 100%
Specificity LAMP = True negative /True negative + False positive *100 137/137 + 0 * 100 100%
  1. LF: lactating female; Non-LF, Non-lactating female (dry or young female); M, Male
  2. This table shows clearly that in the different sexes, male and female (lactating and non-lactating female), of camels, sheep, and goats, the prevalence of T. gondii was higher in male 15/31 (48.3%), 18/31 (58%) sheep and goats compared to lactating and Non-LF females 18/48 (37.5%), 45/113 (39.8%). The serological prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in camels was 5/27 (18.51%), 14/40 (35%), and 15/41 (36.58%) in male, Non-LF, and LF camel sera. Meanwhile, PCR positive results (15%, 15%, and 20%) in male, Non-LF, and LF blood samples collected from camels were similar to those obtained using the LAMP assay when examining the same samples
  3. \({\text{Sensitivity}} = \frac{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{positive}} }}{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{positive}} + {\text{False}}\,{\text{negative}} }} \times 100\)
  4. Sensitivity LAMP assay on blood samples = 22/22 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  5. Sensitivity LAMP assay on milk samples = 16/16 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  6. \({\text{Specificity}} = \frac{{{\text{True}}\,{\text{negative}} }}{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{negative}} + {\text{False}}\,{\text{positive}} }} \times 100\)
  7. Specificity LAMP on blood samples = 213/213 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  8. Specificity LAMP on milk samples = 219/219 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  9. \({\text{Positive }}\,{\text{predictive}}\,{\text{value}} = \frac{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{positive}} }}{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{positive}} + {\text{False}}\,{\text{positive}} }} \times 100\)
  10. Positive predictive value of LAMP assay on blood samples = 22/22 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  11. Positive predictive value of LAMP assay on milk samples = 16/16 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  12. \({\text{Negative}}\,{\text{predictive}}\,{\text{value}} = \frac{{{\text{True}}\,{\text{negative}} }}{{ {\text{True}}\,{\text{negative}} + {\text{False}}\,{\text{negative}}}} \times 100\)
  13. Negative predictive value of LAMP on blood samples = 213/213 + 0 * 100 = 100%
  14. Negative predictive value of LAMP on milk samples = 219/219 + 0 * 100 = 100%