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Table 1 The most notable impacts of foliar application of nutrients on medicinal and aromatic plants

From: Foliar application of nutrients on medicinal and aromatic plants, the sustainable approaches for higher and better production

Plant Scientific name Plant family Key point References
Anise Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae Fe and Zn foliar spray improved the yield of anise, and the highest yield was obtained from 4 g L−1 Zn with 6 g L−1 Fe for biological yield, and from 2 to 4 g L−1 Zn with 6 g L−1 Fe for essential oils [101]
Atractylodes Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Asteraceae Foliar application of 5.0–10.0 mg m−2 selenium was effective in growth of atractylodes [102]
Foliar application of 2.5–20.0 mg m−2 selenium could alleviate the pest damage of leaves [102]
Basil Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Foliar application of zinc sulfate is the appropriate candidate to improve essential oil [103]
Candyleaf (Stevia) Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Asteraceae Application of selenium alone or mixed with iron boosted the growth characteristics of stevia [104]
KNO3 application alleviated the adverse impacts of salinity on yield by up to 26% [105]
Foliar application of moringa leaf extract promoted growth, increased mineral content and nutraceutical and boosted stevioside contents of stevia leaves [106]
Castor bean Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Foliar application of S and P had important role in improving seed and oil yields as well as in boosting oil quality [107]
Chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L. Asteraceae Flower yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield improved by foliar application of Zn and Fe [108]
Costmary Tanacetum balsamita L. Asteraceae Growth parameters, total phenol content, protein, antioxidant capacity and chlorophyll index were stimulated by zinc supply [109]
Foliar spray of iron markedly influenced leaves fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights and peroxidase content [110]
Damask rose Rosa damascene Mill Rosaceae Foliar spray of copper, magnesium and zinc sulfate modulated higher numbers of flowers, flower yield per plant and higher cintronellol + nerol content [111]
Fenugreek Trigonellafoenum-graecum Fabaceae Foliar spray of zinc oxide nanoparticles had positive impacts on some biochemical and physiological parameters [112]
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mill Apiaceae Foliar spray of N and P alleviated the anethole content of oil and boosted that of fenchone significantly [113]
Lemon Balm Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae Foliar application of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn induced to significant impacts on morpho-physiological and essential oil content and composition of lemon balm [114]
Mexican marigold Tagetes minuta L. Asteraceae Essential oil content improved with increasing diammonium phosphate levels [115]
Mint Mentha arvensis L Lamiaceae Foliar spray of sodium chloride markedly alleviated the population of adult whitefly in menthol mint [116]
Application of zinc sulfate and iron sulfate promoted yield and yield attributes [117]
Mustard Brassica juncea L. Brassicaceae Foliar application of N and P boosted the performance of the crop and improved seed yield and oil yield [118]
Peppermint Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae Foliar application of nano-iron (0.5 g L−1) in flowering stage had positive effects on dry matter yield and essential oil content and composition of peppermint [119]
Pot marigold Calendula officinalis L. Asteraceae Nickel is the best candidate to improve plant growth parameters and antioxidant activity [120]
Saffron Crocus sativus L. Iridaceae Foliar application of nano-ZnO improved chlorophyll a [121]
Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Lamiaceae Foliar application of cations such as Si, Zn and K had effective impacts to mitigate the native impacts of salinity stress [122]
Tea Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae Nano-Selenium (10 mg L−1) application significantly increased catechins contents, tea polyphenols, the protein, soluble sugar and carotenoid [123]
Selenium-supplementation may stimulate tea leaves, secondary metabolism, boosting the accumulation of total phenols and flavonoids such as rutin, apigenin, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin [123]
Thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Lamiaceae Foliar application of K+ and Ca2+ was able to lessen salinity stress [124]
Water spinach Ipomoea aquatica Forsk Convolvulaceae Foliar application of selenium alleviated the uptake of chromium, and decreased the distribution characteristics of chromium in organelles [125]