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Table 2 Viability of encapsulated probiotic strains during storage and digestion

From: Encapsulation of probiotics: past, present and future

Microorganism Wall material Encapsulation technique EE (%) Storage Digestion Research findings Reference
Temp Days Viability (log CFU/g) Method Viability (log CFU/g)
L. acidophilus Calcium alginate + WPI Freeze drying 92% 7 °C 90 8.34 Static in vitro 8.13 Probiotics with multilayers of protein and sodium alginate improved the cell viability during storage and digestion [42]
L. acidophilus Pectin, hi-maize, inulin, rice bran Freeze drying 68% 7 °C 120 6.60 Static in vitro 7.4 at Ileum condition These novel wall materials along with pectin improves the cell viability by internal gelation and protects the probiotics cells [43]
     25 °C 120 4.20     
L. acidophilus Whey powder and gum arabic Spray drying 94% 4 °C 28 8.5 Static in vitro 7.98 Encapsulated probiotics were incorporated in the yogurt, and the samples were stable for 28 days with similar cell count [44]
L. acidophilus Skim milk, Sucrose, Maltodextrin (MD), Corn starch Spray drying, freeze drying 78 – 80.5% 4 °C 30 9.20 Maltodextrin had better protection of the bacterial cells with higher viability during storage [45]
L. rhamnosus WPI, crystalline nanocellulose, inulin Freeze drying 90% In vitro static method 1.6 The complex wall material system significantly improved the survivability of the bacteria during the simulated digestion [46]
L. rhamnosus WPI + modified starch Spray drying 4 °C 60 No significant change Loss of 0.96 log CFU/g after spray drying was observed. Probiotics incorporated functional food (green tea) maintained the cell viability of 7.33 CFU/mL for 5 weeks at 4 °C [47]
L. rhamnosus FOS +  sodium alginate Extrusion 91% 4 °C 30 7 In vitro Gastric  ~ 8.5 SA-FOS encapsulated probiotics were stable during the simulated digestion and maintained the cell viability above 8 log CFU/g [48]
        Bile condition  ~ 9.2   
L. rhamnosus Eudragit® S100 Spray drying 5 °C 56 0.4 log reduction In vitro Gastric 1.5 log reduction Eudragit maintained the viability of bacterial cells during simulated gastrointestinal condition and can be an ideal candidate for colon specific delivery of probiotics [49]
L. rhamnosus SPI, MTGase Spray drying, freeze drying, electrospraying technique 93% 4 °C 30 10.8 In vitro Gastric 9.6 (1 h) Spray drying provided better encapsulation than the freeze drying and electrospraying technique. Cross-linking effect of SPI with MTGase improved the viability during storage and GI digestion [50]
     25 °C 30 10.8 In vitro Intestine 5.6 (2 h)   
L. plantarum Soluble starch Spray drying 4 °C 56  ~ 9.6 Soluble starch has the highest glass transition temperature among the selected carbohydrate-based wall materials. 2.5% soluble starch can provide better protection against heat [51]
L. plantarum WPI, gum arabic Spray drying (SD), Freeze drying (FD) 67% (SD) 84 (FD) 25 °C 60 60.52 (SD) First time reported the co-encapsulation of phytosterols and probiotics by complex coacervation technique. Developed Ironian white cheese with the coencapsulated probiotics maintained the viability of bacterial cells than the free cells [52]
       82.03 (FD)     
L. plantarum Acrycoat S100 Spray drying 81% Encapsulated probiotics were incorporated into Milano-type salami. Incorporation of probiotics in salami didn’t influence the sensory characteristics [53]
L. plantarum Skim milk Spray drying   4 °C 21 7.6 (Yogurt) Successfully developed probiotic cheese and yogurt and both showed excellent sensory characteristics [54]
      56 8.8 (Cheese)     
Lplantarum Maltodextrin, gum Arabic, beetroot powder Spray drying   25 °C 90 3.59 Reduction in the cell viability after spray drying [55]
Lplantarum Soy milk, Soy yogurt Dynamic digestion DIVRSD-II plus Change in digestive pattern of soy protein due lactic fermentation and influence of protein digesta on human faecal microbiota [56]
Lplantarum Dynamic model. SIMGI 7 – 9 in colon Lplantarum can act as a bio-enhancer of polyphenol metabolisms [57]
Bacillus coagulans Incorporated in orange juice, yogurt Semidynamic model 7.25 (juice) B. coagulans in food matrix (orange juice and yogurt) had highly resistant to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions [58]
         7.10 (yogurt)