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Table 1 Different techniques for physicochemical characterization of AgNPs

From: Combination of silver nanoparticles with ineffective antibiotics against extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing isolates at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt

Techniques Physicochemical characteristic analyzed
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Elemental and chemical composition at the surface
Zeta potential Stability referring to the surface
Infrared spectroscopy (MS) Structure and conformation of bioconjugates, functional group analysis
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Size and size distribution, shape, aggregation
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Size and size distribution, shape heterogeneity, aggregation
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) Hydrodynamic size distribution
Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) Size and shape of nanomaterials
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Structure, composition, purity
Mass spectrometry (MS) Molecular weight, composition, structure
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Size and size distribution, shape, structure, aggregation