 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Mathematical analysis of fractionalorder Caputo’s derivative of coronavirus disease model via Laplace Adomian decomposition method
BeniSuef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences volume 11, Article number: 144 (2022)
Abstract
Background
The world's survival ability has been threatened by the COVID19 outbreak. The possibility of the virus reemerging in the future should not be disregarded, even if it has been confined to certain areas of the world after wreaking such havoc. This is because it is impossible to prove that the virus has been totally eliminated. This research attempts to investigate the spread and control of the COVID19 virus in Nigeria using the Caputo fractional order derivative in a proposed model.
Results
We proposed a competent ninecompartment model of Corona virus infection. It starts by demonstrating that the model is epidemiologically sound in terms of solution existence and uniqueness. The basic reproduction threshold R_{0} was determined using the nextgeneration matrix technique. We applied the LaplaceAdomian decomposition method to the fractionalorder Caputo's derivative model of the Corona virus disease to produce the approximate solution of the model analytically. The obtained results, in the form of an infinite series, were simulated using the MAPLE 18 package to investigate the effect of fractional order derivative on the dynamics of COVID19 transmission in the model and shed light on methods of eradication. The graphical interpretations of the simulation process were shown and discussed accordingly.
Conclusions
The study reveals the effect of the Caputo fractional order derivative in the transmission dynamics of the disease. Individual recovery was found to be greatest at an integer order, which represents the full implementation of other factors such as treatment, vaccination, and disease transmission reduction. Hence, we advised that researchers, government officials, and health care workers make use of the findings of this study to provide ways in which disease transmission will be reduced to a minimum to stop the prevalence of COVID19 by applying the findings of this study.
1 Background
The fatal Corona virus first emerged from Wuhan, China, before the end of 2019. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) was found to be the virus responsible for the illness, according to a medical agent’s investigation, and the World Health Organization named the viruscaused ailment Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (WHO, 2020b). As of July 2020, there had been more than 213 countries where this illness had spread, resulting in a total of 15,969,465 infections and 643,390 fatalities. The illness takes two to fourteen days to develop, and around 97.5 percent of affected people reportedly show symptoms within days [1,2,3,4]. As of June 4th, 2020, there were 11,516 confirmed cases in Nigeria, with 323 fatalities [5]. Numerous authors have anchored research relating to the transmission dynamics of COVID19. To mention a few, research was presented in [6, 7], where the dynamical behaviors of nonlinear and linear COVID19 transmission dynamics were studied. In [8], research was conducted on the construction of a mobile crowdsourced COVID19 vulnerability map with geoindistinguishability. They propose a novel approach to effectively construct a reliable communitylevel COVID19 vulnerability map based on mobile crowdsourced COVID19 selfreports without compromising participants’ location privacy, and the extensive simulations of their results based on realworld data demonstrate the proposed scheme's superiority over the peer designs in terms of estimation accuracy and reliability.
Mathematical modeling may be used to track the transmission of infectious illnesses. When followed, the use of mathematical principles and theory, as well as the work flow, strategy, and expected results, can end the course of illnesses. As a result, the biological sciences have become more reliant on mathematical modeling in recent years.
To analyze the progression of illnesses, a number of scholars have put forth various mathematical models. For instance, [9] explored a deterministic model of an infectious disease. The model was subjected to a numerical procedure based on the differential transform (DTM). The comparison between DTM and RK4 demonstrates how trustworthy DTM is for resolving epidemic models. A smoking model was proposed by the authors in [10]. Laplace Adomian Decomposition was used to examine the model's solution, which converges quickly to the specified precise solution. Numerical simulations of the model were also run to better understand how the parameters responded. The susceptible, infected, and recovered epidemic model was solved in a study reported in [11] using a powerful technique based on the generalized Taylor series, known as the residual power series approach. Convergence of the analytical approach for the SIR model solution is in the form of a power series. The graphical outcomes further illustrated the versatility of the residual power series strategy in solving a wide range of realworld issues involving differential equations of any order. A mathematical analysis of the rabies virus was done in [12]. The authors claimed that it is difficult to discover an exact solution for the model; therefore, they used the homotopy perturbation approach to achieve an approximation of the answer and compared their results to those of the Runge–Kutta fourthorder method.
Numerical modeling is crucial for forecasting the progression of illnesses. To simulate these proposed mathematical models, it is frequently necessary to obtain their solutions. Mathematicians frequently use numerical approximation techniques and transformation procedures, such as the Laplace Adomian decomposition method pioneered by [13], to achieve the analytical solution of complex mathematical models because it is challenging and occasionally impossible to do so.
For instance, researchers in [14] investigated the polytropic sort, which is important in Newtonian astrophysics, and used the Elzaki transform homotopy perturbation approach (ETHPT) in their strategy to solve the nonlinear Emden–Fowler model. They also used the homotopy disturbance approach to manage the nonlinear term with ease. For the purpose of modeling a nonlinear biological reaction model, the Laplace transform method was utilized in [15] to provide an approximate solution. They asserted that the applicable method, which can be used to solve any linear or nonlinear differential equation, is the most intriguing and straightforward approach that yields remarkably accurate results. In [16], nonlinear Rubella Sickness Tributes are unwound using a numerical approach. The SVLPT's quality is demonstrated. The limited contrast system is used to understand the condition's game strategy. The mathematical model is provided to attest to the steadfast quality and sufficiency of the specified technique. Advancing research, the numerical solution and dynamical behaviors of a fractional nonlinear Rubella disease model were studied in [17]. They proved the existence and stability of the solution of the fractional order model. The optimal control of the model and the numerical technique for the simulation of the control problem were also discussed.
Fractional calculus is a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of noninteger order integrals and derivatives (also known as fractional derivatives and integrals, or fractional integrals and fractional derivatives, respectively). This topic focuses on the concept of and strategies for solving differential equations with fractional derivatives of an unknown function (called fractional differential equations). The origins of fractional differential equations may be traced back to the invention of classical calculus in a letter Leibniz wrote to L'Hospital in the year 1695, when the notion of a semiderivative was proposed.
Researchers in fractional calculus look at the characteristics of nonintegerorder derivatives and integrals. Numerous applications from various researchers have been extensively reviewed. In [18], a fractional differential system in a restricted domain of the classical control theory approach for a differential system with a time delay was investigated. It takes into consideration the FOCP, or fractional optimum control problem. This same fractional optimal control was extended by [19] for problems involving variableorder differential systems. In research presented in [20], a timefractional model of HIVI infection of CD4^{+} T lymphocyte cells in an uncertain environment was studied. First, the fractional fuzzy HIVI model is converted to an intervalbased fuzzy differential equation by using the single parametric form, and they applied the fractional differential transform method to solve the corresponding fractional model, obtaining the required solution in terms of intervals. The analysis of the dynamics of phytoplankton nutrient and whooping cough models with a nonsingular kernel arising in the biological system was studied in [21]. The Atangana–Baleanu derivative was used in the fractionalorder model to examine the phytoplankton nutrient and whooping cough models. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of these models were shown using the fixed point theorem, and the solutions for the fractionalorder models are obtained using the perturbation transform method, namely HPETM. Detailed simulations are carried out to show the effect of fractional order. Investigation of a new modeling and existenceuniqueness analysis for Babesiosis disease was carried out in [22], advancing in the study and application of fractional calculus. A fractional epidemiology model of the disease and processes of Babesiosis transmission specified in the fractional derivative sense is used to model and analyze the transmission of this parasite, treat this parasite, and deal with this essential issue. The propagation of Babesiosis mechanisms is studied using the Caputo–Fabrizio (CF) derivative. Also, a SIR epidemic model of childhood diseases through fractional operators with Mittag–Leffler and exponential kernels was studied in [23]. They applied the homotopy perturbation Elzaki transform method to obtain the solutions of the epidemic model of childhood diseases involving timefractional order Atangana–Baleanu and Caputo–Fabrizio derivatives and Their study revealed that the method offers a rapidly convergent series solution. A research project presented in [24] on the nonlinear fractional tumorimmune model is solved using the reduced differential transform technique. In the Caputo sense, the fractional derivative is described. This approach yields straightforward and very precise solutions. The signal flow diagram of the model reveals the model. Additionally, a simulation of the system using MATLAB's Simulink is provided.
In the studies presented in [25] for variational inequalities, the problem of fractional optimal control is taken into account. The fractional time derivative is considered in the Riemann–Liouville definition. The existence and uniqueness of a class of fractional differential variational inequalities are investigated in a Sobolev space. For a fractional variational inequality in a constrained domain with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, a solution is demonstrated. Controls have restrictions imposed on them. For the quadratic performance functional in the fractional Cauchy problem, we construct the required and sufficient optimality requirements. Examples include the description of the adjoint issue and the firstorder optimality criterion for the Euler–Lagrange equation.
In order to stop the COVID19 pandemic, control methods relating to health care that may be implemented, such as isolation, quarantine, and travel restrictions, were presented in [6]. To better understand the dynamical behavior of nonlinear COVID19 models, two techniques, namely the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and the modified reduced differential transform approach, were used. According to their findings, social exclusion of those who may be afflicted is a powerful tool for halting the spread of the fatal virus. In [26], a new Corona virus mathematical model and dynamics are presented, and a brief description of the interactions between bats and unidentified hosts, then between people and the infection reservoir (the seafood market), is given. The formulated model is then used to create a fractional model that is numerically solved and produces graphical results that can help reduce infection.
As a motivation for this study, there is a need for a dependable strategic procedure capable of containing the spread of the COVID19 virus in Nigeria to reduce the pressure exerted by the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic on the country’s struggling health care system because of the risk posed by the second wave of the COVID19 virus. We modified a mathematical model presented in [27] by formulating its derivative to be of Caputo fractional order and adding a vaccinated compartment in order to analyze the effect of the fractional order derivative and vaccination of individuals in tracking the spread of COVID19 transmission. Following that, we demonstrate the model's fundamental characteristics, which are the validity of its existence and uniqueness, and establish its basic reproduction number. Finally, LADM was used to obtain the analytical solution, and we examined the effect of the Caputo fractional order derivative on its classes and parameters using the LaplaceAdomian decomposition method.
2 Preliminaries
2.1 Fractional calculus
Here, some fundamental definitions and properties in fractional calculus applicable in this paper will be given.
Definition 1
A real function \(\rho (x),\,\,x > 0,\) is said to be in the space \(C_{\mu \,} ,\,\,\mu \in R\) if there exist a real number \(m > \mu\) such that \(\rho (x) = x^{m} \rho_{1} (x).\) where \(\rho_{1} (x) \in C(0,\infty ),\) and it is said to be in the space \(C^{n}_{\mu \,}\) if and only if \(\rho^{(n)} \in C_{\mu } ,\,n \in N.\)
Definition 2
The Riemann–Liouville fractional integration of order \(\eta \ge 0\) of a positive real function \(\rho (x) \in C_{\mu \,} ,\,\,\mu \ge  1\,\,\,x > 0\) is defined as:
\(I^{\eta } \rho (x) = \frac{1}{\Gamma (\eta )}\int\limits_{0}^{t} {(x  t)^{\eta  1} \rho (x){\text{d}}x}\) Such that \(I^{0} \rho (x) = \rho (x).\)
The following properties hold for fractional integral operator \(I^{\eta }\) for \(\rho (x) \in C_{\mu \,} ,\,\,\mu \ge  1\,\,\,\eta ,\alpha \ge 0\,\) and \(\,\beta \ge  1\):
Definition 3
The Caputo fractional derivative of a positive real function \(\rho (x)\) given as \(D^{\eta } \rho (x)\) is given by.
\(D^{\eta } \rho (x) = \frac{1}{\Gamma (n  1)}\int\limits_{0}^{t} {(x  t)^{n  \beta  1} \rho^{(n)} (t){\text{d}}t}\) For \(n  1 < \eta \le n,\,\,n \in N,\,\,\,t > 0,\,\,\varphi \in \mathop c\nolimits_{  1}^{n} .\)
The following property holds for fractional integration of the Caputo fractional derivative. For \(n  1 < \eta \le n,\,\,n \in N,\,\,\varphi \in \mathop c\nolimits_{  1}^{n} ,\,\mu \ge  1.\) Then
2.2 Laplace transform
In this section, we give some basic properties of the Laplace transform method as applied in the article.
Definition 4
Let \(\varphi (t)\) be a function defined for all positive real number \(t \ge 0\).

i.
The Laplace transform of \(\varphi (t)\) is the function \(\varphi (s):\varphi (s) = \int\limits_{0}^{\infty } {e^{  st} \varphi (t)} {\text{d}}t\)

ii.
The Laplace transform of function \(\varphi (t)\) with order η is defined as \(L[\varphi^{\eta } (t)] = \alpha^{\eta } L[\varphi (t)]  \alpha^{\eta  1} \varphi (0)  \alpha^{\eta  2} \varphi \prime (0)  \alpha^{\eta  3} \varphi \prime \prime (0) \cdots\)

iii.
The inverse Laplace transform of \(\frac{\varphi (s)}{s}\) is \(L^{  1} \frac{\varphi (s)}{s} = \int\limits_{0}^{t} {\varphi (t){\text{d}}t}\)
Definition 5
The Laplace transform of the fractional integral and derivatives for \(\alpha > 0\) is defined as: \(L[D_{t}^{\alpha } \rho (x)] = L\left[ {\frac{1}{\Gamma (n  \alpha )}\frac{{{\text{d}}^{n} }}{{{\text{d}}x^{n} }}\int_{0}^{t} {(x  u)^{n  \alpha  1} \rho (x){\text{d}}x} } \right]\).
2.3 Adomian decomposition method
Definition 6
The Adomian polynomials denoted by \(A_{0} ,A_{1} , \ldots A_{n}\), consists in the decomposition the unknown function \(y(t)\) in a series of the form \(y(t) = y_{0} + y_{1} + y_{2} + \cdots y_{n}\) can be expressed as:
2.4 Existence and uniqueness of solution
Theorem 1
Let
Suppose D is the region in (n + 1) dimensional space (one dimension) for \(t\) and \(n\) dimension for the vector x, if the partial derivative \(\frac{{{\text{d}}f}}{{{\text{d}}x_{i} }}\) where \(i = 1,2,3, \ldots n\) are continuous in \(D = \{ (x,t):\backslash t  t_{0} \backslash \le a,\backslash x  x_{0} \backslash \le b\) then there constant \(\delta \ge 0\) Such that there exist a unique.
Continuous vector \(x = [x_{1} (t),x_{2} (t),x_{3} (t), \ldots x_{n} (t)]\) solution in the interval \(\backslash t  t_{0} \backslash \le \delta\).
2.5 Stability analysis
Lemma 1
Suppose \(\overline{x}\) is an equilibrium point of a timeinvariant system i.e., \(\overline{x}\) is an equilibrium point of \(X(t) = f(X(t))\).
For a precise definition of stability, it is convenient to introduce the notation \(S(\overline{X},R)\) to denote a spherical region in the state space with center at \(\overline{x}\) and Radius R.
Definition 5
An equilibrium point \(\overline{x}\) is stable if there exists \(R_{0} > 0\) for which the following is true. For every \(R < R_{0}\) there exist r. \(0 < r < R\),such that \(X(0)\) is inside \(S(\overline{X},R)\),when \(X(t)\) is inside \(S(\overline{X},R)\) for all \(t > 0\).
Definition 6
An equilibrium point \(\overline{x}\) unstable if it is not stable. Equivalently, \(\overline{x}\) unstable \(R_{0} > 0\) for which the following is true. For every \(R < R_{0}\) there exist r. \(0 < r < R\), such that \(X(0)\) is inside \(S(\overline{X},R)\),when \(X(t)\) is inside \(S(\overline{X},R)\) for all \(t > 0\).
3 Methods
The suggested model's composition is described in this section. A nonlinear mathematical model is constructed and tested to investigate the influence of transmission coefficient and other epidemiological factors on the dynamic transmission of COVID19 virus. Consider the deterministic mathematical model employing the Corona virus illness model to have a better grasp of the Corona virus disease model.
The total population is given as:
A vulnerable population member is someone who is at risk of developing a disease. Owing to the recruitment of active persons or the birth of individuals, the proportion of susceptible rises at rate rho, whilst the population falls due to natural mortality.
if the infection's propelling force, then the population's rate of change is
determined by
It calculates coefficient of individual humantohuman transmission.
People who have received the COVID19 vaccination are included in the Vaccinated population. The population of vaccinated people grows with the rate of recruiting vaccinated people and decreases with the rate of vaccination death, where is the rate of vaccination loss.
Rate of change of vaccinated population is thus given by:
The population of Exposed (E) individual is a member of a population generated through infection of susceptible that infected but not yet infectious, exposed individual increase through the infection of susceptible by the force of infection \(K_{1} I(t)S(t) + K_{2} H(t)S(t) + K_{3} P(t)S(t)\) and decrease individual leaves the exposed class at \(\kappa\).
The, changing rate of the vaccinated individual is given by:
A person who displays symptoms of the COVID19 virus is deemed symptomatic and infectious, and their chance of catching the virus from another person increases as a result of exposure. Both natural mortality and diseaserelated mortality caused by infected persons have a detrimental influence on this population.
A SuperSpreader is a member of the population who has the virus and is more likely to distribute it to others. As more people are exposed to the virus through humantohuman transmission, the population rises. Individuals are also being reduced due to natural death rates and diseaserelated mortality rates caused by sick persons.
The population of Infectious but Asymptomatic individuals is a member of a population that does not show symptoms of COVID19 virus at all, They increased by the infection progression at a rate \((1  \rho_{1}  \rho_{2} )\) which causes the development of symptoms by exposed individual \((\kappa )\) becoming asymptomatic, This population decreases as a result of induced deaths from disease and natural death due to infected individual \((\delta_{i} )\), Hence
The population of the Hospitalized individual is a member of the population that show symptoms of COVID19 Virus, symptomatic and superspreader individual becomes hospitalized at rate \((\gamma_{a} )\). This population increase by the individual exposed to the virus that is humanto human transmission of symptomatic and superspreader individual and also decreased by natural and diseaseinduced death rate due to infected individual \((\delta_{i} )\), Hence
The population of recovered individuals is a member of the population who recovered from the disease; this population rose at the rate of recovery without being hospitalized and decreased as a consequence of the efficacy rate of recovering in hospitalized patients.
where \(K_{1} = \frac{\beta }{N}\), \(K_{2} = \frac{l\beta }{N}\) and \(K_{3} = \frac{{\beta^{^{\prime}} }}{N}\) (Table 1).
3.1 Existence and uniqueness of solution
Theorem 1: Let
Let R be the vector’s area dimensional space (one dimension), if the partial derivative.
\(\frac{{{\text{d}}g}}{{{\text{d}}z_{i} }}\) where \(i = 1,2,3 \ldots n\) are continuous in \(\Re = \{ (z,t):\left {t  t_{0} } \right \le a,\left {z  z_{0} } \right \le b\) then there constant \(\delta \ge 0\) Such that there exists a unique continuous vector solution \(z = [z_{1} (t),z_{2} (t),z_{3} (t), \ldots z_{n} (t)]\) in the interval \(\left {t  t_{0} } \right \le \delta\).
Let:
The solution to the model is unique, taking partial derivative to obtain the following;
Also, taking partial derivative of the second function i.e.,
\(g_{2} = \frac{{{\text{d}}V}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \pi \rho  (\omega + \delta_{v} )V(t)\) to obtain the following;
Similarly, taking the partial derivative of the third function i.e., \(g_{3} = \frac{{{\text{d}}E}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = K_{1} I(t)S(t) + K_{2} H(t)S(t) + K_{3} P(t)S(t)  \kappa E(t)\),
to obtain the following;
\(\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial S}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial V}} \right = \left {  (\omega + \delta_{v} )} \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial E}} \right = \left {  \kappa } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial I}} \right = \beta ,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial P}} \right = \left {\beta^{^{\prime}} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial A}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial H}} \right = \left {l\beta } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial R}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{3} }}{\partial F}} \right = 0\) Similarly, taking the partial derivative of fourth function i.e.,
\(g_{4} = \frac{{{\text{d}}I}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \kappa \rho_{1} E(t)  \gamma_{a} I(t) + \gamma_{1} I(t)  \delta_{1} I(t)\) to obtain the following;
Taking the partial derivative of the fifth function i.e., \(g_{5} = \frac{{{\text{d}}P}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \kappa \rho_{2} E(t)  \gamma_{a} P(t)  \gamma_{1} P(t)  \delta_{1} P(t)\) to obtain the following;
\(\begin{aligned} & \left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial S}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial V}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial E}} \right = \left {\kappa (1  \rho_{1  } \rho_{2} )} \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial I}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial P}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial A}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial H}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial R}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{6} }}{\partial F}} \right = 0 \\ & \left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial S}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial V}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial E}} \right = \left {\kappa \rho_{2} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial I}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial P}} \right = \left {  (\gamma_{a} + \gamma_{1} )  \delta_{1} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial A}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial H}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial R}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{5} }}{\partial F}} \right = 0 \\ \end{aligned}\) Taking the partial derivative of sixth function i.e., \(g_{6} = \frac{{{\text{d}}A}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \kappa (1  \rho_{1}  \rho_{2} )E(t)\) yield the following;
Taking the partial derivative of seventh function i.e., \(g_{7} = \frac{{{\text{d}}H}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \gamma_{a} I(t) + \gamma_{a} P(t)  \gamma_{r} H(t)  \delta_{h} H(t)\) yield the following;
Taking partial derivative of eighth function i.e.,
\(g_{8} = \frac{{{\text{d}}R}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \gamma_{1} (I(t) + P(t))  \gamma_{r} H(t)\) yield following;
Finally, taking the partial derivative of ninth function.
i.e., \(g_{9} = \frac{{{\text{d}}F}}{{{\text{d}}t}} = \delta_{1} I(t) + \delta_{p} P(t) + \delta_{h} H(t) + \delta_{v} V(t)\), yield the following;\(\left {\frac{{\partial g_{8} }}{\partial F}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial V}} \right = \left {\delta_{v} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial E}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial I}} \right = \left {\delta_{1} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial P}} \right = \left {\delta_{p} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial A}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial H}} \right = \left {\delta_{h} } \right,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial R}} \right = 0,\left {\frac{{\partial g_{9} }}{\partial F}} \right = 0\).
Because the partial derivative exists, it is continuous and bounded, as shown in Theorem 1.
The problem has a unique solution, showing that it is mathematically and biologically properly stated.
3.2 Basic reproduction number
In mathematical epidemiology, one of the core issues is to establish the threshold condition that governs whether or not an infectious disease may spread in a susceptible population which is defined as basic reproduction number.
Let,
3.3 Application of Laplace Adomian decomposition method
We derive the Caputo fractionalorder derivative by substituting it for the derivative in the mathematical model for fractionalorder of coronavirus disease shown in (10), so we obtain (12)
Initial condition \(S_{0} = n_{1} ,V_{0} = n_{2,} ,E_{0} = n_{3} ,I_{0} = n_{4} ,P_{0} = n_{5} ,A_{0} = n_{6} ,H_{0} = n_{7} ,R_{0} = n_{8} ,F_{0} = n_{9} .\)
where \({}^{{{{}{}}c}}D^{\alpha } 0 \le \alpha \le 1\) represent Fractional order derivative of Caputo and \(\alpha\) indicate timefractional derivative. By taking Laplace transform on the system given in (12), we get
By definition of Laplace transform, we obtain
Assumed that, the method gives an infinite series solution such that:
The nonlinear term involved are \(I(t)S(t)\), \(H(t)S(t)\), \(P(t)S(t)\) can be written as
where \(M_{n}\), \(Q_{n}\), \(W_{n}\) are Adomian polynomial given by
Substitute Eqs. (15), (16) and (17) into (14), we obtain:
To obtain the solution of each compartment, we iterate term in Eq. (18). Thus, taking the Laplace transform inverse gives General formula for the model:
The followings were obtained from (19);
3.4 Results
Evaluating the obtained results using the following parameters;
\(\beta = 2.55\), \(l = 1.56\), \(\beta_{1} = 7.65\), \(\kappa = 0.25\), \(\rho_{1} = 0.58\), \(\rho_{2} = 0.001\), \(\gamma_{a} = 0.94\), \(\gamma_{1} = 0.27\), \(\gamma_{r} = 0.5\), \(\delta_{1} = \frac{1}{3}\), \(\delta_{1} = \frac{1}{23}\), \(\delta_{h} = \frac{1}{23}\), \(K_{1} = 1.27659574510^{  10}\), \(K_{2} = 1.99148936210^{  10}\), \(K_{3} = 3.82978723310^{  10}\), \(\omega = 2\), \(\pi = 30\), \(\rho = 0.5\), \(\delta_{v} = 2\).
We obtain the following series solution of arbitrary order:
3.5 Numerical simulation
To analyze the impact of Caputo fractional order in the model’s compartment, we conduct numerical simulation by varying the order at \(\alpha = 0.75\), \(\alpha = 0.85\) and \(\alpha = 1\). The outcome of simulation process is presented graphically and discussed.
4 Discussion
Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 illustrate that the fractional order Corona Virus Disease model has a larger degree of freedom than a traditional derivativebased model. Another interesting point to note is that we predicted relatively low starting values; therefore we used a short time period.
As shown in Figs. 3, 7, 8 and 9, the starting data for longer time intervals should be sufficiently large to ensure that the population under consideration is not negative. Figures 10, 11 and 12 depict the combined plots of the solutions of S(t), V(t), E(t), I(t), P(t), A(t), H(t), R(t), F(t), and k (the rate at which a on each compartment). Figure 10 shows that the vulnerable population has decreased significantly in susceptible individual and significant increase on other compartment. Another observation from Figs. 11 and 12 is that assuming the initial value of (k) is large then small interval time used. More so, all compartments take the curves from zero increase significant on the slopes.
5 Conclusion
In a similar but different study presented in [10], the numerical solution of fractional order smoking model was obtained via Laplace Adomian decomposition method. In their results, they discussed that the fractional order model has more degree of freedom and therefore can be varied to get various responses of the different compartments of their model. They used small interval of time to avoid negative population of the classes which will not be realistic. They stated that for larger time interval, the initial data should be taken large so that the concerned population may not be negative. In our Research, we verified the existence and uniqueness of the model and applied this same Laplace Adomian decomposition method which proved to be effective in computing the solution of the proposed mathematical models as it produced an unconditionally convergent solution potent of capturing the dynamics of coronavirus disease as seen in our numerical simulation. As observed in some of the presented graphs, negative values of the population will be observed if time is increased. As a result, we equally postulate that larger values of initial data should be used for further research if longer time period will be investigated. More so, the validity of the model will be established if real data are applied to conduct the numerical simulations as there are high possibilities to examine the behavior of each classes of the model due to potential increase in time.
5.1 Recommendations
Although the Caputo fractional order derivative and Laplace Adomian decomposition method proved effective and potent for understanding the dynamics of transmission and computing the solution of the proposed system in this study, we recommend that interested researchers in field extends the theory of fractional calculus to the advance the research by numerically simulating the effect of other fractional derivatives such as the Atangana–Baleanu and Caputo–Fabrizio using other numeral numerical methods such as the homotopy perturbation method or the Homotopy analysis method on the mathematical model using real data. Also further studies could be carried out by splitting the vaccination compartment into two to analyze the effect of first and second doses in the population, respectively. The first dose was used in this study, whereas the second dose can be used in future studies. In disease control, the vaccination compartment is crucial.
Availability of data and materials
Not applicable.
Abbreviations
 Covid19:

Coronavirus disease 2019
 SVEIPAHRF:

Susceptiblevaccinationexposedsymptomaticsuperspreaderinfectioushospitalizerecovereddeath
 LADM:

Laplace Adomian decomposition method
 R_{0} :

Reproduction number
References
Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, Azman AS, Reich NG, Lessler J (2020) The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Ann Internal Med 172(9):577–582
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P (2020) Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 382(13):1199–1207
Lai C, Shih T, Ko W, Tang H, Hsueh P (2020) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus the schallenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents 55(3):105924
DelRio P, Malani N (2020) Covid19: new insights on a rapidly changing epidemic. JAMA 323(14):1339–1340
Adegboye OA, Adekunle AI, Gayawan E (2020) Early transmission dynamics of novel coronavirus (COVID19) in Nigeria. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17(3054):1–10
Gepreel KA, Mohamed MS, Alotaibi H, Mahdy AMS (2021) Dynamical behaviors of nonlinear coronavirus (covid19) model with numerical studies. Comput Mater Continua 67(1):675–686
Chowdhury SM, Chowdhury JT, Ahmed SF, Agarwal P, Badruddin IA, Kamangar S (2022) Mathematical modelling of COVID19 disease dynamics: interaction between immune system and SARSCoV2 within host. AIMS Math 7(2):2618–2633. https://doi.org/10.3934/math.2022147
Chen R, Li L, Ma Y, Gong Y, Guo Y, Ohtsukiormation T (2022) Constructing mobile crowdsourced COVID19 vulnerability map with geoindistinguishability. IEEE Internet Things J 9(18):17403–17416. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2022.3158895
Adebisi AF, Peter OJ, Ayoola TA, Ayoade AA, Faniyi OE, Ganiyu AB (2019) Semi analytic method for solving infectious disease model. Sci World J 14(1):1597–6343
Haq F, Shah K, Rahman G, Shahzad M (2018) Numerical solution of fractional order smoking model via laplace Adomian decomposition method. Alex Eng J 57:1061–1069
Hasan S, AlZoubi A, Freihet A, AlSmadi M, Momani S (2019) Solution of fractional SIR epidemic model using residual power series method. Appl Math Inf Sci 13(2):1–9
Sinan M (2020) Analytic approximate solution of rabies transmission dynamics using homotopy perturbation method. Matrix Sci Math 4(1):1–5
Adomian G (1991) A review of the decomposition method and some recent results for nonlinear equations. Comput Math Appl 21(5):101–127
Mashdy AMS (2022) A numerical method for solving the nonlinear equation of EmdenFowler Models. J Ocean Eng Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joes.2022.04.019
Amer YA, Mashdy AMS, Shwayaa RT, Youssef ESM (2018) Laplace transform method for solving nonlinear biochemical reaction model and nonlinear Emden Fowler system. J Eng Appl Sci 13(17):7388–7394
Mahdy AMS, Gepreel KA, Lotfy KH, ElBary AA (2021) A numerical method for solving the Rubella ailment disease model. Int J Mod Phys 32(7):1–15
Mahdy AMS, Mohamed MS, Lotfy KH, Alhazmi M, ElBary AA, Raddadi MH (2021) Numerical solution and dynamical behaviors for solving fractional nonlinear Rubella ailment disease model. Results Phys. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104091
Bahaa GM (2017) Fractional optimal control problem for differential system with delay argument. Adv Differ Equ. https://doi.org/10.1186/s1366201711216
Bahaa G (2018) Fractional optimal control problem for variableorder differential systems. Fract Calculus Appl Anal. https://doi.org/10.1515/fca20170076
Chakraverty S, Jena RM, Jena SK (2020) Timefractional model of HIVI infection of CD4^{+} T lymphocyte cells in uncertain environment. In: Timefractional order biological systems with uncertain parameters. Synthesis Lectures on Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/9783031024238_6
Jena RM, Chakraverty S, Jena SK (2020) Analysis of the dynamics of phytoplankton nutrient and whooping cough models with nonsingular kernel arising in the biological system. Chaos Solitons Fractals. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2020.110373
Mohan JR, Snehashin C, Mehmet Y, Thabet A (2021) A new modeling and existenceuniqueness analysis for Babesiosis disease of fractional order Modern. Phys Lett 35(30):2150443
Jena RM, Chakraverty S, Baleanu D (2021) SIR epidemic model of childhood diseases through fractional operators with MittagLeffler and exponential kernels. Math Comput Simul (MATCOM) 182:514–534
Mahdy AMS, Higazy M, Mohamed MS (2021) Optimal and memristorbased control of nonlinear fractional tumorimmune model. Comput Mater Continua 67(3):3463–3486
Bahaa GM (2018) Fractional optimal control problem for variational inequalities with control constraints. IMA J Math Control Inf 35(1):107–122
Khan MA, Atangana A, Alzahrani E (2020) The dynamics of COVID19 with quarantined and isolation. Adv Differ Equ 1:425. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13662020028829
Ndairou F, Toress DFM (2021) Mathematical analysis of a fractional COVID19 model applied to Wuhan and Portugal. Axioms 10:135. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms10030135
Acknowledgements
The authors hereby acknowledge with thanks everyone who has contributed to the success of this research work.
Funding
Not applicable.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
AOY was involved in conceptualization. AOY, MOO and IOA performed investigation and were involved in project administration. MOO and IOA were involved in writing—original draft. AOY, MOO, KAA and IOA were involved in supervision and visualization. MOO performed formal analysis. AOY, MOO, KAA, IOA and JAA were involved in writing—review & editing. KAA, IOA and JAA performed methodology. KAA and IOA were involved in software. IOA and JAA were involved in validation. JAA collected resources. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher's Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Yunus, A.O., Olayiwola, M.O., Adedokun, K.A. et al. Mathematical analysis of fractionalorder Caputo’s derivative of coronavirus disease model via Laplace Adomian decomposition method. BeniSuef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 11, 144 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43088022003269
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s43088022003269